They can be, but not always, as in all Reiki treatments it depends on the specific needs of each individual. Example: One of my students did extensive research with 3 sets of 10 green bean plants. One group received no Reiki, one Hands-on and one Distant treatment for 50 days. The two groups receiving Reiki had increased growth, development, survival, and vitality. The Hands-on treatment group showed the highest rates for flower/pod production and germination. The Distant treatment group showed the highest rate of height and leaf growth.